Meaning of Each Chapter of the Gita – Chp 11-14

Eleventh Chapter

Everyone can’t behold the divine Universal Form whose vision Arjun enjoyed by God’s grace,  but everyone can see this world as an incarnation of God, and by having faith, can thus have a vision of this Universal Form.  

When Arjun requested Lord Krishna to reveal His Cosmic Form,    the Lord by bestowing upon Him divine vision manifested His Cosmic Form to him.   In that form, Arjun beheld innumerable mouths, eyes, arms etc. He also saw Brahma,  the Creator,  Vishnu, the Preserver,  and Shiva,  the destroyer.  Moreover, he saw hosts of gods,  Gandharvas (celestial musicians),   Siddhas (those who have attained the Supreme),  the celestial serpents etc. He saw the cosmic form in several stages –  gentle (pleasing), frightful and very frightful etc. Though we can’t see this Divine Cosmic form, yet we can attain salvation by regarding this world as the manifestation of God,  because this world has emanated from God and it is He alone who has put on the appearance of the whole phenomenon.

Twelfth Chapter

A devotee is extremely dear to God;  because he fully surrenders himself to God with his body-senses-mind-intellect. 

He who with utmost faith,  engages his mind in God, that devotee is best of all.   Those devotees who have turned to God, who have dedicated all their actions  to God, and with exclusive feeling worshipped God; God Himself sees to their crossing the ocean of this world and quickly leads them to their salvation.   Those who engage their mind-intellect in God, they dwell and live in God Himself. Those who are friendly and compassionate to all beings, those who are free from sense of I-ness (ahamta) and mine-ness (mamta), and no beings are perturbed and on the edge by them,  and who himself is also not anxious with others, he who renounces the initiation of any new actions, he who does not become elated or dejected at favourable and unfavourable circumstances, who remains equanimous in honor and dishonour, who remains ever contented in any situation or circumstance,  such a devotee is dear to God. If man becomes God’s,  has sense of mine (my very own) with God,  then all can become dear to God.

Thirteenth Chapter

In this world there is only that One Divinity (Paramatma tattva) that is worth knowing.   One must surely know them.  Knowing that in essence, the knower becomes inseparable from that Divinity (Paramatma tattva).  

By knowing that God,  one attains immortality.  That God’s hands, feet, head, eyes, ears are everywhere.   Though being devoid of all the senses, He is the illuminator of all objects;  though being devoid of all qualities and attributes, He is the occupier of all the qualities;  and though being free of any affection and attachment, He is the provider and nourisher of all.  He is outside all the beings, and also within, and also it is Him only in the form of all movable and immovable creatures.   Though remaining separate from all beings, he is inseparable (without any division). He is the illuminator of all knowledge.   He remains evenly and proportionately among all the disproportionate beings, amongst all the mobile beings, he remains free of any movement.  Among all the perishable and destructible beings, He remains imperishable and eternal. In this manner, on genuinely knowing God, one realizes God.   

Fourteenth Chapter

This entire world is made of the three modes of Nature.   To be beyond these, one must surely know the the modes and their tendencies.  

The three modes, Goodness, Passion and Ignorance, that are born of Nature  – causing attachment and sense of mine (mamta) etc. in the body and the world,  bind a man (jivaatma).   Mode of Goodness (Sattva guna) through attachment to pleasure and knowledge,   Mode of Passion (Rajo guna), through attachment to activity and Mode of Ignorance,  through negligence, laziness, and sleep, causes man to be bonded. When mode of Goodness increases,  by suppressing Mode of Passion and Mode of Ignorance, then illumination takes places in the mind-intellect,  tendencies opposing activity and ignorance. When the Mode of Activity increases, by suppressing Mode of Purity and Mode of Ignorance, then greed, activity etc.,  tendencies opposing purity and ignorance, increases in the mind-intellect instrument. When the Mode of Ignorance increases, by suppressing the Mode of Purity and Mode of Activity,  then there is lack of discrimination, lack of interest in doing work, indolence, delusion, etc. tendencies that are opposing purity and activity, increases in the mind-intellect instrument.  When the tendencies of the modes of nature increase, the dying being, successively goes to upper, middle or lower regions (loks). But he who does not regard anything other than the modes to be the doer,  in other words, he who realizes that all activities are taking place in the modes, not in the self ‒ such a one goes beyond the modes, and attains godliness (भगवद्भाव).   A man can rise beyond the modes of Nature, also through exclusive devotion.  

From book in hindi “Gita Darpan” by Swami Ramsukhdasji