Meaning of Each Chapter of the Gita – 4 to 6

Fourth Chapter

There are two methods to dissolve all actions and to be free from their bondage.   They are 1) knowledge of truth about actions, and 2) attainment of knowledge.

God creates the Universe,  but He is not bound by actions.   Because He is attached neither to the action,  nor its fruit, nor He has the sense of doership.  The action of those who have no desires, and who have no attachment to their fruit,  melt away. Such persons by performing actions being free from attachment to the action and their fruit,  are not bound. Those who perform actions only to maintain their body, and remain equanimous in success and failure,  are not bound. All the actions of those persons, who perform them in order to safeguard the tradition of the performance of duty, melt away.   Thus by properly knowing the truth about actions, men become free from the bondage of actions.

Knowledge consists in the total detachment of the insentient (inert).  This knowledge is superior to the sacrifices which are performed with materials.  All actions melt away in this knowledge. Having acquired this knowledge, a man is never deluded.  Even the most sinful of all sinners, crosses over all sins by this knowledge. As the blazing fires reduces the fuel to ashes,  so does the fire of knowledge, reduce all actions to ashes.

Fifth Chapter

A man should not feel happy or sad,  pleased or displeased, in favourable or unfavourable circumstance, because being entangled in the pairs of opposites, of pleasure and pain etc.,   he can’t transcend the world.

A true renouncer is not he who renounces his wife, sons, family,  self, and property, but one who is free from attachment and aversion while performing his duty.  He who neither rejoices in pleasant circumstances, nor grieves in unpleasant circumstance, being free from pairs of opposites,  remains established in God. The pairs of opposites of mundane pleasures and pains, likes and dislikes, are the sources of pain.   So a wise man should not get entangled in them.  

Sixth Chapter

Every means should lead to even mindedness, without which a man cannot remain uniform in favorable and unfavorable circumstances, in honor and dishonor,  and can’t meditate on God. It means that without even-mindedness, the effect of the pairs of opposites such as pleasure and pain will continue and it will create an obstruction in meditation.   

The person who remains equanimous in favourable and unfavourable circumstances (which he receives as a fruit of his past deeds),  in success and failure, in honor and dishonor, in profit and loss, and also while dealing with good and evil persons, is noble.  He who by controlling his senses and mind, meditates on God, in order to attain equanimity, becomes equanimous for all beings, and also in their pleasures and pains.  

The person having desire to attain equanimity,   transcends the meritorious deeds, performed for fruits as mentioned in the Vedas.  An equanimous person is superior to those persons who perform austerities and action, and gain knowledge in order to reap their fruits.   

From book in hindi “Gita Darpan” by Swami Ramsukhdasji