Meaning of Each Chapter of the Gita – Chp 15-18

Fifteenth Chapter

A striver who firmly believes that God is the root cause of this world and He is the noblest Supreme person,  comes to know all and nothing remains to be done for him.

One should seek the Supreme person from Whom this world has sprung and has been going on from time immemorial,  and having attained Him, one never returns. The strivers who possess the eye of wisdom, know him in reality.     That Supreme person residing in the form of effulgence (light) in the Sun, and the moon and the fire, illumes the world.  He, entering the earth, supports all beings, and becoming the sapid moon, nourishes trees, plants and vines etc. He taking the form of fire lodged in the body  of beings, digests the four kinds of food. He remains seated in the hearts of all beings. He is the author of the Vedanta, and the knower of the Vedas, and He is worth knowing by the Vedas.     He sustains the entire universe. He is beyond the perishable world, and is superior to the imperishable soul. He is known as the Supreme Person in the world and in the Vedas. Therefore a striver knowing Him as the Supreme Person ,  should worship Him with exclusive devotion.

   Sixteenth Chapter

Demoniac traits or evils lead a man to eighty four lacs forms of lives as well as,  to hells. Therefore a man should be free from the bondage of the world, the cycle of birth and death,  by possessing divine traits and virtues.

Those who having renounced the demoniac traits  such as hypocrisy, arrogance, pride, desire, anger and greed etc.,   possess the divine traits such as fearlessness, non-violence, truth, absences of anger,  compassion, Yagna (worship of God, performance of sacrifice and other duties), charity and austerity etc.,   are liberated from the bondage of the world. But those who are guided by demoniac traits and evils such as desire,  anger, greed, worry, egoism etc., and indulge in them, pave the path for eighty-four lac forms of lives and hells.    

  Seventeenth Chapter

Those who know the ordinance of the scriptures,  and also those who don’t know it, should perform good actions with faith,  by thinking of God and by reciting His name.

The faith of those who don’t know the ordinance of the scriptures,  but perform sacred acts such as sacrifice and worship, is of three kinds   – of the mode of goodness, of passion and of ignorance. According to their faith,  the gods worshipped by them are also of three kinds. The faith of those who don’t perform sacred acts,  such as sacrifice and worship, is known by the food they relish, because food is eaten by all men.

  Eighteenth Chapter

According to the taste,  caliber and faith of a human being,   three means i.e. the discipline of action,  of knowledge, and of devotion (refuge) have been mentioned for God Realization.  Each of them can lead him to God Realization.

The real renouncer is he who performs sacrifice,  austerity, charity and duty, being free from attachment and the desire for fruit,  and who has neither attachment to an agreeable work, nor aversion to a disagreeable work.  He neither incurs sin by performing his obligatory duty, nor does he ever receive the fruit of actions.    All his doubts are dispelled and he gets established in the self. This is the discipline of action.

The person having possessed knowledge, action,  understanding (intellect), firmness, and happiness of the mode of goodness, becomes free from the sense of doership,  and does not desire to reap the fruit of actions, incurs no sin, even if he kills all beings. By being established in the self,  he attains supreme devotion, and having known him in truth, he forthwith enters into Him. This is the discipline of knowledge.

A man even while performing his duty whole-heartedly,   and scrupulously by depending upon God, by God’s grace attains the immortal state.    The man who being solely devoted to Him, mentally resigns all his duties to Him, by God’s grace overcomes all obstacles and difficulties.   He who applies himself with his body, mind and senses to God, attains Him. He who renouncing dependence of duties, takes refuge in Him only,   with exclusive devotion, is liberated from all sins by Him. This is the discipline of Devotion.

From book in hindi “Gita Darpan” by Swami Ramsukhdasji